He Wang, Yunfeng Diao, Zichang Tan , Guodong Guo
Proceedings of the AAAI conference on Artificial Intelligence 2023
Skeletal motions have been heavily replied upon for human activity recognition (HAR). Recently, a universal vulnerability of skeleton-based HAR has been identified across a variety of classifiers and data, calling for mitigation. To this end, we propose the first black-box defense method for skeleton-based HAR to our best knowledge. Our method is featured by full Bayesian treatments of the clean data, the adversaries and the classifier, leading to (1) a new Bayesian Energy-based formulation of robust discriminative classifiers, (2) a new adversary sampling scheme based on natural motion manifolds, and (3) a new post-train Bayesian strategy for black-box defense. We name our framework Bayesian Energy-based Adversarial Training or BEAT. BEAT is straightforward but elegant, which turns vulnerable black-box classifiers into robust ones without sacrificing accuracy. It demonstrates surprising and universal effectiveness across a wide range of skeletal HAR classifiers and datasets, under various attacks. Code is available at this https URL.